. Figure 123 enlarge. Edible seaweeds are a rich and sustainable source of macronutrients (particularly dietary fiber) and micronutrients, but if seaweeds are to contribute to future global food security, legislative measures to ensure monitoring and labeling of food products are needed to safeguard against excessive intakes of salt, iodine, and heavy metals. Desideri et al176 found that 3.3 g of Laminaria digitata would provide 4017% of the tolerable daily intake for iodine and suggested that habitual intake of seaweed with an iodine content exceeding 45 mg/kg of dry weight could impair thyroid function. Through an evaluation of the nutritional composition of edible seaweeds, this review summarizes the available evidence and outlines the potential risks and health benefits of consuming whole seaweeds, extracted bioactive components, and seaweed-based food products in humans. et al. More research in healthy human participants is needed to determine whether fucoxanthin plays a role in altering lipid metabolism or in reducing the risk of obesity. Edible seaweeds (macroalgae) have the potential to provide a rich and sustainable source of macronutrients and micronutrients to the human diet, particularly in regions where seaweed makes a significant contribution to regular meals, eg, in Japan, where approximately one-fifth of meals contain seaweed.1–3 Inclusion of seaweeds in Western diets has traditionally been limited to artisanal practices and coastal communities but has gained wider consumer interest in recent years, courtesy of the health-food industry.4 The recent surge of interest in seaweed is fueled by attention on the bioactive components of seaweed, which have potential applications in the lucrative functional food and nutraceutical industries, with impetus toward the alleviation of metabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperlipidemia.5 The candidate bioactive components of interest to industry include isolated polysaccharides (eg, alginate, fucoidan), proteins (eg, phycobiliproteins), polyphenols (eg, phlorotannins), carotenoids (eg, fucoxanthin), and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (eg, eicosapentaenoic acid). . MacMonagail M, Cornish L, Morrison L, However, the contribution of whole seaweed to the currently recommended intake of dietary fiber, ie, 25 g/d, is limited, with a 5-g serving of brown, red, or green seaweed contributing up to 14.28%, 10.64%, or 12.10% of dietary fiber intake, respectively (Tables 1, 2, and 3).79 This has led to increasing interest in the industrially applicable extraction and isolation of individual fiber components from seaweed. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Farasat M, Khavari-Nejad RA, Nabavi SMB, Namjooyan F. Machu L, Misurcova L, Ambrozova JV, Thus, alginate isolated from brown seaweeds, long used by the food industry, is a leading candidate for application in the functional food market.91–93 Fucoidan was recently classified by the EFSA as a novel food,94 making it an another candidate for an emerging functional food ingredient, while suggestions that low-molecular-weight carrageenan components (< 50 kDa) may negatively impact health (on the basis of proinflammatory properties) have tempered interest in the potential use of carrageenan as a functional ingredient.95 Other seaweed fibers, such as xylan, laminarin, and ulvan, have not received official EFSA approval, and thus more research is needed to ascertain whether these carbohydrates are safe for human consumption. . Copyright © 2020 International Life Sciences Institute. et al. Enteromorpha spp and Porphyra spp are reported to contain 63.58 μg and from 32.26183 to 133.8 μg184 per 100 g of dry weight, respectively. These amounts exceed salt and sodium quantities in an equivalent amount of bacon (0.144 g of salt and 0.0575 g of sodium), which is considered a high-salt food.190, Iodine is a trace element required for the synthesis and function of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) thyroid hormones. Pages in category "Hormosira banksii" This category contains only the following page. A. Published January 2013. et al. [29,41] on Hormosira banksii and Sargassum vestitum. Mechanistic evidence, in particular, is imperative to substantiate health claims. Author contributions. Total lipid content ranges from 0.29% in Sargassum polycystum30 to 8.88% in Porphyra spp.26,Porphyra spp have the lowest saturated fatty acid (SFA) content (17.4% of total fatty acids), whereas Plocamium brasiliense has the highest (74% of total fatty acids).40 Monounsaturated fatty acid content relative to total fatty acid content ranged from 3.3% in Ochtodes secundiramea to 47.1% in Fucus vesiculosus.19 The PUFA content of total fatty acids ranges from 6.7% in Ulva lactuca51 to 69.1% in Undaria pinnatifida.28,Undaria pinnatifida also has the highest PUFA:SFA ratio (3.39). Volume 160, November 2020, 111544]. Seaweeds containing active vitamin B12 may be useful for individuals following a vegan diet, who are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.185 For example, the authors of a cohort study in children following a vegan diet for 4 to 10 years attributed healthy vitamin B12 status to nori consumption (Porphyra spp).186 Other seaweeds examined in this study, such as hijiki, wakame, and kombu, are understood to contain limited amounts of vitamin B12 or to contain vitamin B12 analogs that, because of structural differences, do not have vitamin B12 activity in humans.187 It has also been reported that the drying of Porphyra spp inactivates vitamin B12; therefore, processing methods may impact vitamin bioavailability.188. French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety. Food Standards Agency, Government of the United Kingdom. The beads have … et al. Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: a literature-based analysis, Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for iodine, Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives, Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants: Seventy-Third Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Seaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer in women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, Prospective study of seaweed consumption and thyroid cancer incidence in women: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, Association between dietary iodine intake and prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the coastal regions of Japan, Transient hyperthyroidism in a patient taking dietary supplements containing kelp, Iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis after ingestion of kelp-containing tea, Iodine supplementation of pregnant women in Europe: a review and recommendations, Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows’ milk, Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women, Variability of iodine content in common commercially available edible seaweeds, Evaluation of iodine bioavailability in seaweed using in vitro methods, A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products, Chemical species of iodine in some seaweeds II. Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment. Fucoxanthin purified from Hormosira banksii was also evaluated for its contribution to antioxidant activity compared to phenolic compounds in the extracts. The Neptune’s Necklace (Hormosira banksii) being an exception. The effect of sun-drying, oven-drying, and freeze-drying methods on the nutritional composition of the seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turn.) Extraction and Identification of phlorotannins from the brown alga, Functional properties of carotenoids originating from algae, Biosynthetic pathway and health benefits of fucoxanthin, an algae-specific xanthophyll in brown seaweeds, Enhancing colour and oxidative stabilities of reduced-nitrite turkey meat sausages during refrigerated storage using fucoxanthin purified from the Tunisian seaweed, Direct and indirect effects of leptin on adipocyte metabolism, Seaweed carotenoid, fucoxanthin, as a multi-functional nutrient, Fucoxanthin and lipid metabolism: a minireview, Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-A, H. Seaweed fucoxanthin supplementation improves obesity parameters in mild obese Japanese subjects, The carotene, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents of some Scottish seaweeds, Carotenoids in algae: distributions, biosyntheses and functions, Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption, Prevalence of osteoporosis according to nutrient and food group intake levels in Korean postmenopausal women: using the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products, Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (, High iron content and bioavailability in humans from four species of marine algae, The in vitro digestibility and absorption of magnesium in some edible seaweeds, Dried green and purple lavers (nori) contain substantial amounts of biologically active vitamin B, The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature, Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae. 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