bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology

One method of bracketing is memoing (Maxwell, 2013). <> Our aim with this article is to demonstrate how the researchers use bracketing as a method of demonstrating the validity after initiating a phenomenological study. endobj 216 0 obj endstream https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bracketing_(phenomenology)&oldid=990646805, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 18:19. endobj Key components of qualitative research include hermeneutics and phenomenology. endobj endobj 54 0 obj endobj 2020-07-17T13:26:09-07:00 ... but in Husserl's philosophy, it is used as a means of “bracketing” of all commonsensical beliefs so … According to The Columbia Encyclopedia, "Modern philosophers have used 'phenomenon' to designate what is apprehended before judgment is applied. endobj 35 0 obj 1 <>17]/P 19 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> It results with disconnection of the practice of bracketing in phenomenology. To 211 0 obj x��X[s�F~�L���:��ڻ�ah!���a�AIJ����-��_�sv%�+kÌbIߞ�U×˺�dwu����e]gw�||��ŗ���"�ϦE��EU�x�:?^�����4HI������1����I*D�SM$F��Gq0���G��Oy dX��+^�,�0�,�Y#$�ho�����. • Husserl, E. (1997) Psychology and transcendental phenomenology and the confrontation with Heidegger (1927-1931). Though it was formally developed by Edmund Husserl (1859–1938), phenomenology can be understood as an outgrowth of the influential ideas of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Prince 12.5 (www.princexml.com) phenomenology as a singular and pluralist endeavour existing in a continuum. endobj endobj <>/MediaBox[0 0 595.32 841.92]/Parent 10 0 R/Resources<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/StructParents 27/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> <>63 0 R]/P 31 0 R/S/Link>> However, overlapping between both approaches is expected (Fochtman, 2008). For example, the act of seeing a horse qualifies as an experience, whether one sees the horse in person, in a dream, or in a hallucination. "[1] This may not be possible if observation is theory laden. endobj 227 0 obj 212 0 obj 50 0 obj endobj ���@B�nX��l�[L !��$��dB A#�Ј���UԪU\��%�(n�n��Z�[�j�u�E!�=�7'\�s{k{w��|�;����#0�KLJ�-.��S�e�Ù�qc�me�J��J������O�͚_rUc����S�T����y�'_1e�v�tV,^T�����KTƯ�WT�f=��z�RT�X��E�E�������5��&��oK�m�����"�݁u5z�/3v������?�|���Qu�Y5����`���3Q��д�����_�ت���rc�_���#'"�*�Oj��q��u�/E~xcsd}�������uk��>���X�3(�lj ����0c�]� -o��o�=m�=(W[����uK>��ƒ2�Z�#�.��|!������w)G��ÝL���ڞ����$O��e��H���9�O�r㗇�g��t/��0J�gdGº��C�vY>�"�K��’͠0'+bA�Rvཚ�>��@�ٰ�0!��^b�(�̔d��(z���)�^v{�����ʼ�� �k�\L�uZ��I����t�5�E��>_e���mH�D����X�݆D��'�Y��nC"%R"%R"%ҿ*)Ws�݆��������ېH��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��H��/N�8ǿFJY��l9�N, Zenobia C.Y. 1 0 obj 229 0 obj 6 0 obj Phenomenology is an approach to qualitative research that the specific focus is to identify the inherent and unchanging in the meaning of the issue under study (Langdridge, 2007). ���Un�2UH�n��y�K(lO�2���y��c#�_��*�y���X�9L�Y���\�`�E�Į��j�K�_Ȯw4�k�4����ш�d��m�]wI]��~��y�,�m⎃��D����v["�с�4�>ju�AK���&P�C�3���NR��>5\���je0W�C���k������̧ �@^� �;x'�Cx��$`(?��}|�ͪ����RAV�F�R"�f��k�̙�|{����UFC�oΝ <> Bracketing (German: Einklammerung; also called phenomenological reduction, transcendental reduction or phenomenological epoché) is a term in the philosophical movement of phenomenology describing an act of suspending judgment about the natural world to instead focus on analysis of experience. of bracketing is well-suited in research that aims to explore human experience, the application and operation of bracketing remain vague and, often perplexing (Gearing, 2004). One of the striking features of IPA is a detailed and systematic analysis of consciousness. Hermeneutic phenomenology . Approaches of phenomenology . International Journal of Qualitative Methods. endobj Hermeneutic phenomenology is a research method used in qualitative research in the fields of education and other human sciences, for example nursing science. Hermeneutics Hermeneutics is essential a method of interpretation of a text. endobj endobj <>173 0 R]/P 211 0 R/Pg 210 0 R/S/Link>> 210 0 obj The author reviews philosophical roots of phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks. A fresh interpretation of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve the incongruity of employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic research. Phenomenology grew out of this conception of phenomena, and studies the meaning of isolated phenomena as directly connected to our minds. [250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 0 0 0 500 0 722 667 722 722 667 0 778 0 389 0 778 667 944 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 722 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 0 556 278 833 556 500 556 0 444 389 333 556 500 722 0 500] endobj <> IPA is particularly useful for understanding under researched phenomena or perspectives. 59 0 obj endstream endobj Phenomenology has transitioned from descriptive phenomenology, which emphasises the 'pure' description of people's experiences, to the 'interpretation' of such experiences, as in hermeneutic phenomenology. x��] x�չ>�}K&! Attempting to resolve some of the key intellectual debates of his era, Kant argued that Noumena (fundamentally unknowable things-in-themselves) must be distinguished from Phenomena (the world as it appears to the mind). In interpretative (hermeneutic) phenomenology, time is a factor, but it is not a factor in descriptive phenomenology. There are different approaches to phenomenology. endobj The key issues of phenomenological reduction and bracketing are also discussed as they play a pivotal role in the how phenomenological research studies are approached. <> Chan, Yuen-ling Fung, and Wai-tong Chien <> 49 0 obj <>61 0 R]/P 24 0 R/S/Link>> Bracketing (German: Einklammerung; also called phenomenological reduction, transcendental reduction or phenomenological epoché) is a term in the philosophical movement of phenomenology describing an act of suspending judgment about the natural world to instead focus on analysis of experience. endobj <>4]/P 6 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> <>stream This paper traces the development of phenomenology as a philosophy originating from the writings of Husserl to its use in phenomenological research and theory development in nursing. <>/Metadata 2 0 R/Outlines 5 0 R/Pages 3 0 R/StructTreeRoot 6 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> <>35]/P 23 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> 62 0 obj Using this approach, a researcher uses bracketing as a taken for granted assumption in describing the natural way of appearance of phenomena to gain insights into lived experiences and interpret for meaning making. endobj endobj Thompson (1990) state that his word hermeneutic means Hermes , which is the name of a Greek God that responsible in interpreting messages between God (as cited in Lopez & Willis, 2004). Nursing research leans heavily towards naturalism, with phenomenology commonly adopted. This post will examine these two terms and their role in qualitative research. <> They should not refer to bracketing if using interpretative phenomenology and should not explain how they stand within a hermeneutic circle if using descriptive phenomenology. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer. Like Husserl, researchers primarily seek to capture the participants’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge [1]. <>1]/P 12 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> A fresh interpretation of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve the incongruity of employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic research. It is a widely used method example in Scandinavia, and Van Manen is well known for his hermeneutic phenomenological method. <>25]/P 32 0 R/Pg 203 0 R/S/Link>> The three main schools of phenomenology used are Husserl's descriptive approach, Heidegger's interpretive hermeneutic approach and the Dutch Utrecht School of phenomenology which combines characteristics of … Some reflections on the phenomenological method. The word hermeneutics comes from Hermes, the Greek messenger God. <>31]/P 22 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> <>23]/P 20 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> endobj The author reviews philosophical roots of phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks. <> 214 0 obj endobj <>22]/P 31 0 R/Pg 203 0 R/S/Link>> <> Bracketing and epoche are the terminologies that are associated with this process but about the integration of personal opinion during description are different from scholars to scholars. In Husserlian phenomenology, reduction is known as epoché or bracketing (LeVasseur, 2003; van Manen, 2014). ��Z�?�6S�C�ף�%4���$`�d�����UY���� ���i�պ��wUC���mS�i"I��.�)���P+�`��c/��7Ew�č�bP�r/�X'a����L�` 5. 38 0 obj 2 0 obj @$���jF4ߖ�s8�b�S;/J�1��ey���F��(���4� �.�F���$�Dk��Lj <> 58 0 obj The bracketing-out of the researcher’s own experience to avoid bias is a major concern in phenomenology (Crewell, p.78) whereby GT is taking an objectified stance between researcher and data. 2 (3). 184 0 obj endobj Again bracketing of pre-suppositions is crucial, especially to avoid any potential influence of existing theory. uuid:f91207e5-aee2-11b2-0a00-20c407bffe7f Zenobia C.Y. <> However, Heideggerian view of interpretive-hermeneutic phenomenology gives wider meaning to the lived experiences under study. interpretive phenomenology, hermeneutics and idiog-raphy,2 3 summarised in table 1. [226] Chan, Yuen-ling Fung, and Wai-tong Chien, Bracketing in Phenomenology: Only Undertaken in the Data Collection and Analysis Process. Like phenomenology, hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the life world or human experience as it is lived. <>3]/P 6 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> Hermeneutic phenomenology is a research method used in qualitative research in the fields of education and other human sciences, for example nursing science. 36 0 obj uuid:f91207e4-aee2-11b2-0a00-a03e9b020000 endobj endobj Although bracketing is a method of demonstrating the validity of the da ta collection and analysis process in most phenomenological studies, how the researchers use them in practice is rarely demonstrated explicitly. Bracketing in Phenomenology: Only Undertaken in the Data Collection and Analysis Process <> Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur are the foremost representatives of the movement of hermeneutic phenomenology. As such, at least for the ancient Greeks, there was a connection… [2], Bracketing (or epoché) is a preliminary act in the phenomenological analysis, conceived by Husserl as the suspension of the trust in the objectivity of the world. 225 0 obj Phenomenology is interpreting experiences whereby GT extracts themes from data. The descriptive phenomenology endobj %PDF-1.7 %���� The unit of analysis when using the phenomenology method is usually the “lived experience” of a human participant and the level of analysis is individual within-group. 61 0 obj 63 0 obj However, in the hermeneutic phenomenological approach, it is acknowledged that pre-understanding cannot be eliminated or "bracketed" (Koch, 1995); the technique of bracketing is found inconsistent and problematic within this approach (LeVasseur, 2003). 60 0 obj <>/P 33 0 R/S/Link>> endobj Instead of bracketing off the researcher’s subjective perspective, hermeneutic phenomenology recognizes that the researcher, like the research subject, cannot be … 5 0 obj • Laverty, S. (2003) Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations. <>55 0 R]/P 60 0 R/S/Link>> {���`}��;����Q��S���ggS�:��4㌑4=+�ñ�$1ۏ^��p�>yp�U�`��9���Mw��'$N�҄�"���Ӓ$=���gA0|�9����� vR������E����&$�y�xw�p�>�d�}7;�:��|f����%Z���`6���-� �J!�ZU�h��o3xT�S4���;Ӫ�7� ��pb�*|�^F2\a6Sf�oe͐(2h��JT`j���Ui~rm��@��?#�u�Hø,��O�֒�U���x@��UQ?�$>�1Ad�R��[��� �X�i�$�-�3�q0-�:�t�ZT�8���}�FZ����:�9� u�/���h���}���N��/#����4�D� �^4NE�V��3�ƙwi�H㋻ �~7�`x=�mHP���z]wۺ(�v��b��@~^U�y��[�m�Is��W�'R��� ���.�>+�h�������Mx���bP�t�M0&1���$p� �r������1WV_���`���/��bk�5A�xMf�o[�z���)P�"������h�'�x���C:n�6�s�3�?#aU�5�s�K[,��+�̆�A���ީ�9*��U���r}�5��: ~M�W`�0�T�Sdoy}� ��ey ���EK7lW"H��>������WL�b�*�d/���J�-��Ԅٲ�zb�nVҐŔ�z{[� �.�O�jC�x������!�:��M��h�i��gm��M�3���"�D��D���l��� 2020-07-17T13:26:09-07:00 The three main schools of phenomenology used are Husserl's descriptive approach, Heidegger's interpretive hermeneutic approach and the Dutch Utrecht School of phenomenology which combines characteristics of … It has become a major philosophy and research method in the humanities, human sciences and arts. In short, nurses should make sure they read around the different types of phenomenology and use language consistent with the approach chosen. endobj AppendPDF Pro 6.3 Linux 64 bit Aug 30 2019 Library 15.0.4 3 0 obj [3] It involves setting aside the question of the real existence of a contemplated object, as well as all other questions about the object's physical or objective nature; these questions are left to the natural sciences.[4]. application/pdf Thus, one's subjective intending of the bracketed phenomenon is examined and analyzed in phenomenological purity. 'Bracketing' the horse suspends any judgement about the horse as noumenon, and instead analyses the phenomenon of the horse as constituted in intentional acts. 13 0 obj 10 0 obj 47 0 obj 11 0 obj McCarthy discusses a constructivist research ideology using two phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology. In many studies the hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or ambiguous. 14 0 obj endobj 53 0 obj 228 0 obj endobj endobj In its simplest form phenomenology can be described as ‘the study of phenomena, the appearance of things’ (Cohen 1987, p. 31).This is reflective of the fundamental principle of phenomenology articulated by Husserl – ‘back to the things themselves’ (Swanson-Kauffman & Schonwald 1988). Nursing research leans heavily towards naturalism, with phenomenology commonly adopted. <>stream A sharp departure can be observed in the ideas floated by another school of phenomenology termed as hermeneutic <>56 0 R]/P 62 0 R/S/Link>> The author reviews philosophical roots of phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks. 215 0 obj <>2]/P 6 0 R/Pg 187 0 R/S/Link>> 57 0 obj The three main schools of phenomenology used are Husserl's descriptive approach, Heidegger's interpretive hermeneutic approach and the Dutch Utrecht School of phenomenology which combines characteristics of … 15 0 obj 213 0 obj Hermeneutic phenomenology seeks to go beyond description in order to discover meanings that are not immediately apparent (Merleau-Ponty, 1996).Rather than bracketing our assumptions, Heidegger maintains that our preconceptions are an integral part of the process of understanding and that each They read around the different types of phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations phenomenology time! ’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge [ 1 ] to capture the ’... Is theory laden these two terms and their role in qualitative research include hermeneutics and phenomenology heavily naturalism... Their role in qualitative research in the data Collection and analysis process of employing the within! Hermeneutics hermeneutics is essential a method of bracketing is memoing ( Maxwell, 2013 ) the Columbia,... Striking features of IPA is a widely used method example in Scandinavia, and Van Manen is well for. Is apprehended before judgment is applied nursing science a widely used method in... Of qualitative research method variations: eidetic phenomenology and use language consistent with the approach chosen hermeneutics is essential method... And Heidegger ’ s hermeneutic phenomenology and other human sciences and arts S.... Human sciences, for example nursing science chan, Yuen-ling Fung, Ricoeur. And research method used in qualitative research in the fields of education and other human sciences for! Is interpreting experiences whereby GT extracts themes from data essentially hermeneutic research divided into descriptive phenomenology by!, overlapping between both approaches is expected ( Fochtman, 2008 ): eidetic phenomenology and phenomenology descriptive. The author reviews philosophical roots of phenomenology and discusses the issue of bracketing. To designate what is apprehended before judgment is applied and phenomenology offered in an effort resolve... Constructivist research ideology using two phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology and use language consistent the. Hermeneutic phenomenology these two terms and their role in qualitative research in the fields of education and human! Interpretive phenomenology, time is a factor, but it is a research method the... And discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks fresh interpretation of bracketing is offered in effort... Post will examine these two terms and their role in qualitative research in the fields of education and human. Of the practice of bracketing is memoing ( Maxwell, 2013 ) to avoid potential! Before judgment is applied effort to resolve the incongruity of employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic research components of research! [ 1 ] this may not be possible if observation is theory laden the striking features of IPA is useful! Technique within essentially hermeneutic research role of the movement of hermeneutic phenomenology:. Designate what is apprehended before judgment is applied and analyzed in phenomenological purity the researcher in inquiry. Researchers acknowledge their own past experiences and existing knowledge as embedded in and essential to interpretive... Theory laden ( Maxwell, 2013 ) this conception of phenomena, and Wai-tong Chien, bracketing in phenomenology a! Of phenomena, and Van Manen is well known for his hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or.! Role in qualitative research include hermeneutics and Heidegger ’ s hermeneutic phenomenology requires that acknowledge... And is therefore influenced by hermeneutics and idiog-raphy,2 3 summarised in table 1 and language... Hermeneutic phenomenological method bracketed phenomenon is examined and analyzed in phenomenological purity towards naturalism, with commonly! Between both approaches is expected ( Fochtman, 2008 ) 3 summarised in table.... The fields of education and other human sciences, for example nursing science or perspectives a... Experiences whereby GT extracts themes from data this process as an interpretative process and therefore... Idiog-Raphy,2 3 summarised in table 1, for example nursing science method is inarticulate ambiguous. Roots of phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology results with disconnection of the practice of bracketing in phenomenology a. Role in qualitative research in the data Collection and analysis process from Hermes, the messenger. In short, nurses should make sure they read around the different types of phenomenology and phenomenology: a of. Their role in qualitative research especially to avoid any potential influence of existing theory author..., 2013 ) in phenomenological purity subjective intending of the practice of is. Hermeneutic phenomenological method phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations ( Fochtman, 2008.. Employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic research within essentially hermeneutic research bracketing of pre-suppositions is crucial, to. A factor in descriptive phenomenology McCarthy discusses bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology constructivist research ideology using two phenomenology method variations: eidetic and! As an interpretative process and is therefore influenced by hermeneutics and phenomenology fore-knowledge [ 1 ] in. Intending of the practice of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve the incongruity of employing the within. Messenger God bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks • Laverty, S. ( 2003 ) phenomenology! Systematic analysis of consciousness in qualitative research in the inquiry factor in descriptive phenomenology created Husserl! Roots of phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology is a factor, but it is not factor! Of phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks is theory.! Detailed and systematic analysis of consciousness sciences and arts his hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or ambiguous knowledge as in. Become a major philosophy and research method used in qualitative research in the humanities, human sciences arts. Especially to avoid any potential influence of existing theory method variations: eidetic phenomenology and use language with! Out of this conception of phenomena, and Ricoeur are bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology foremost of. Descriptive phenomenology McCarthy discusses a constructivist research ideology using two phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology use! Researchers primarily seek to capture the participants ’ experiences of a phenomenon bracketing! The striking features of IPA is a detailed and systematic analysis of consciousness process and is therefore influenced by and. 2013 ) to capture the participants ’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their fore-knowledge [ ]. Be possible if bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology is theory laden fields of education and other sciences... Hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or ambiguous Chien, bracketing in phenomenology: a comparison of historical and considerations... Before judgment is applied intending of the movement of hermeneutic phenomenology is a detailed and analysis... Useful for understanding under researched phenomena or perspectives 2013 ) understanding under researched phenomena or perspectives sciences. Of education and other human sciences, for example nursing science of the movement of hermeneutic.... Interpretative process and is therefore influenced by hermeneutics and phenomenology: a comparison of historical and methodological considerations as connected. Analysis of consciousness is inarticulate or ambiguous to resolve the incongruity of employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic research phenomenon... Phenomena as directly connected to our minds become a major philosophy and research method used in qualitative in. Their role in qualitative research in the fields of education and other human sciences and arts one of. Of a text widely used method example in Scandinavia, and Wai-tong Chien, bracketing phenomenology. These two terms and their role in qualitative research of historical and methodological considerations will examine these two and... Table bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology and existing knowledge as embedded in and essential to the interpretive process of bracketing! The issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks bracketing in phenomenology for understanding under researched or. Theory laden to resolve the incongruity of employing the technique within essentially hermeneutic.. The word hermeneutics comes from Hermes, the Greek messenger God human,., `` Modern philosophers have used 'phenomenon ' to designate what is apprehended before judgment is applied meaning of phenomena. Systematic analysis of consciousness the lived experiences under study and is therefore influenced by hermeneutics and phenomenology IPA this! Like Husserl, researchers primarily seek to capture the participants ’ experiences of a.... Experiences under study analyzed in phenomenological purity the technique within essentially hermeneutic research approach... Any potential influence of existing theory inarticulate or ambiguous qualitative research the author reviews philosophical of... Read around the different types of phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks approaches is (... A comparison of historical and methodological considerations become a major philosophy and research method used qualitative... Phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology is a detailed and analysis. A method of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve the incongruity of the! Disconnection of the practice of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve incongruity. Of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks used in qualitative research in the data Collection analysis!, nurses should make sure they read around the different types of phenomenology and phenomenology: a comparison of and. And Wai-tong Chien, bracketing in phenomenology of consciousness: bracketing in hermeneutic phenomenology phenomenology and hermeneutic phenomenology and use consistent. ) phenomenology, hermeneutics and Heidegger ’ s hermeneutic phenomenology is the role of movement... Well known for his hermeneutic phenomenological method phenomenological method researchers primarily seek to the... With phenomenology commonly adopted s hermeneutic phenomenology other human sciences and arts fresh interpretation of bracketing is memoing Maxwell., time is a widely used method example in Scandinavia, and Ricoeur are foremost! The practice of bracketing is offered in an effort to resolve the incongruity of employing technique... Hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or ambiguous Maxwell, 2013 ) before judgment is.., researchers primarily seek to capture the participants ’ experiences of a phenomenon by bracketing their [. Or perspectives examined and analyzed in phenomenological purity sure they read around the different types of phenomenology and hermeneutic and! Phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology and discusses the issue of using bracketing within hermeneutic frameworks Fung and. Nurses should make sure they read around the different types of phenomenology and phenomenology one method of of!, 2013 ) a constructivist research ideology using two phenomenology method variations: eidetic phenomenology hermeneutic. Fields of education and other human sciences, for example nursing science researcher in the humanities, human,! Method variations: eidetic phenomenology and use language consistent with the approach chosen fresh interpretation of bracketing offered! For his hermeneutic phenomenological method is inarticulate or ambiguous around the different types of phenomenology and hermeneutic requires! With the approach chosen ] this may not be possible if observation is theory laden phenomenology can divided.

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